by Patrick-James
The Legal System

Once again I must credit Brent-Emory..Johnson and his book "The Sovereign American"
for the information on the following page.  This is all his work.  It is straight from Chapter
Four of his book.

In order to truly appreciate the nature of the breakdown of our system of government,
you must first understand the court system as originally set up by the framers of our
Constitution.  Under this system, courts only operatement relating to a dispute or obligation, it is brought before an equity court,
which explores and examines the nature of the contract, and then renders a decision.  
Equity courts also hear liability cases, which by their very nature go beyond substance
and fact and could therefore not be heard in a general common law venue court.  

In matters involving amounts greater than twenty (20) dollars in either court, the involved
parties are entitled to a trial by an impartial jury (Sixth Amendment U.S.  Constitution).

Admiralty courts, also know as Article I courts because that is their constitutional source,
deal with criminal and civil matters which involved the breaking of some international
treaty or pact.  For example, if Japan had some kind of agreement to conduct trade with
the United States, and then went back on that agreement or violated that agreement in
any way, that action would come before an admed under three venues::  common law,
equity, and admiralty.

Common law venue courts are the general courts of the people.  They handle criminal
and civil actions in which there are real, damaged parties (the State is not a real party in
interest).  If you commit a crime that causes damage to your neighbor, such as theft,
murder or assault, or in some other way directly caused damage to another human
being, you then have to answer for that act in a court of common law, with an impartial
jury evaluating the arguments and the facts in the case, examining the nature and
content of the applicable law, and then rendering its verdict on the matter.  Courts of
common law deal exclusively with matters of fact and substance.  There are very few
"official" courts of common law remaining within the Union states and the District of

Courts of common law date back to 1215 and the signing of the Magna Carta.  Common
law embodies the principle that you can do anything whatsoever that you want to do, so
long as you do not cause damage to another.  It pre-dates America and its use in
American courts is not subject to statutory legislative authority, but is a prerequisite of
constitutional judicial process in our country.

America is enjoying an unprecedented resurgence in common law venue courts,
established and presided over by We the People.  Government officials have
propagandized these courts as having no legal substance, claiming that they are not
courts of law and that their actions are a form of domestic terrorism designed to prevent
"legitimate" government officials from doing their jobs (i.e.  taking your property and
giving it away to someone who didn't earn it).  This is simply not true.

The common law venue courts are the courts of the people.  They sit at the county level,
and the county is the highest form of government under our system, because it is the
closest to the people, who are the rulers.  

They are courts of the people because in America, the people are the rulers and
government officials are their servants.  If you clearly understand this, then how can you
allow a government official (a servant) to dictate to a Citizen (the master) that His Court is
not lawful?  Can the servant compel the master to attend him?  Of course not!  Officials
decry the validity of common law venue courts of the people because they want to keep
the majority of Americans ignorant of their natural rights.  If you still have any doubts I
suggest you review Ensminger v Farm Credit Bank of Wichita; First National Bank of
Okeene, 10th Circuit Court of Appeals, April 7, 1995, Nos.  94-64515, 94-6417, D.C. Nos.
 CIV-94-1038-R, CIV-94-1040-R.  During this case the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals
acknowledged the validity and authority of the county common law venue courts of the
people.  All Circuit Courts must follow suit.

If you followed the 1998 impeachment hearings, you heard Independent Prosecutor Kent
Starr mention common law several times during his testimony to Congress.

Equity courts handle civil matters arising out of contract disputes.  When there is a
disagreiralty court.  Admiralty courts are courts
under the Executive Branch of government.  They operate under military jurisdiction and
military court rules.

Admiralty courts also hear matters involving crimes committed in international waters.

The United States is Bankrupt

It is an established fact that the United States federal government was dissolved by the
Emergency Banking Act on March 9, 1933 (48 Stat. 1, Public Law 89-719).  House Joint
Resolution 192 of the 73rd Congress, in session June 5, 1933, entitled Joint Resolution
to Suspend the Gold Standard and Abrogate the Gold Clause, dissolved the sovereign
authority of the United States and the official capacities of all United States governmental
offices and Departments.

The receivers of the United States bankruptcy are the international bankers via the
United Nations and the International Monetary Fund.  The real losers are the American
people, for we have lost the lawful structure of our once great country.

According to one judge (who asked that his name remain anonymous), he attended a
secret meeting of the judiciary in April 1933.  All the higher judges, top attorneys and U.S.
 attorneys were present.  They were told that "America is a bankrupt nation.  It is owned
completely by its creditors.  The creditors own the Congress, they own the Executive,
they own the Judiciary, and they own the state governments. Take silent judicial notice of
this fact, but never reveal it openly.  Your court is now operating in an admiralty
jurisdiction.  Call it anything you want, but do not call it admiralty, because we do not want
to explain ourselves to the American public..." (paraphrased).  You see, due to the fact
that the United States could not pay its debts, international contracts and treaties were
broken, invoking admiralty (military) jurisdiction throughout the country.

"Mr. Speaker, we are here now in Chapter 11.  Members of Congress are official trustees
presiding over the greatest reorganization of any bankrupt entity in world history, the
United States Government.  We are setting forth hopefully, a blueprint for our future.  
There are some who say it is a coroner's report that will lead to our demise."

Rep.  James Traficant, Jr., United States Congressional Record March 17, 1993, Vol. 33,
page H-1303

The reason they cannot call it admiralty jurisdiction is that your defense would be quite
different in admiralty jurisdiction than under common law.  Under admiralty jurisdiction
there must be a valid international contract in dispute. if you know that you are under
admiralty jurisdiction and they have admitted on the record that you are in an admiralty
court, then you can demand that the international maritime contract in dispute, to which
you are supposedly a party and which you supposedly have breached, be placed into
evidence. You would be within your rights to say, "...well, I never knew I was involved with
an international maritime contract, so I deny that any such contract exists.  If this court is
taking jurisdiction under admiralty law, the place the contract in evidence so that I may
challenge its validity."

In order to comply, the court would have to place the federal debt into evidence.  They
would have to admit that the international bankers own the whole nation; that we are a
nation of slaves.  They are not likely to do so.

All Official Courts are Under Admiralty Jurisdiction

Our "official" courts today are all operating under admiralty jurisdiction, except the Court
of Claims in Washington D.C., which remains under common law.  You can easily identify
an admiralty court by noting the presence of a gold fringed flag in the courtroom.  This is
a military flag which denotes admiralty jurisdiction within that court.

"2-3.  Sizes and occasions for display.

b.  National flags listed below are for indoor display and for use in ceremonies and
parades.  For these purposes the United States flag will be rayon banner cloth, trimmed
on three sides with golden yellow fringe, 2.5 inches wide.  It will be the same size as the
flags displayed or carried with it.

c.  Authorization for indoor display.

(4)  each military courtroom."

  Army Regulation 840-10, October 1, 1979

"The flag of the United States shall be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white;
and the union of the flag shall be forty-eight stars, white in a blue field.

61 Stat.  642, July 30, 1947

4 United States Codes, Section 1

If you walk over to your local town hall, you will probably find an American flag hanging on
a pole outside, one which does not have a gold fringe attached.  Inside the Council
Chamber however, you will always find the gold fringe on the flag.

Colorable Law and the Uniform Commercial Code

At the time of the United States bankruptcy, the federal government set up a system of
colorable law to go along with its already established colorable currency (Federal
Reserve Notes).  The word colorable means something that appears to be genuine but is
not.  Maybe it looks like a dollar, and maybe it spends like a dollar, but if it is not
redeemable for lawful money-silver or gold-it is colorable.  If a Federal Reserve Note is
used in a contract, then it becomes a colorable contract which must be enforced under
colorable jurisdiction.  In other words, after creating Federal Reserve Notes the
government had to create colorable jurisdiction to cover the kinds of contracts which use
them.  (Read the Federal Reserve System).

Color of Authority:  That semblance or presumption of authority sustaining the acts of a
public officer which is derived from his apparent title to the office or from a writ or other
process in his hands apparently valid and regular.

  Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition

Color of Law:  "The appearance or semblance, without the substance, of legal right.  
Misuse of power, possessed by virtue of state law and made possible only because
wrongdoer is clothed with authority of state, is action taken under color of law."

Atkins v.  Lanning, D.C.  Okl., 415 F.  Supp.  186, 188

Color of Law:  "Mere semblance of a legal right."

State ex rel.  West v Des Moines, 96 Iowa 521, 65 NW 818

In America today the official courts are under "statutory" jurisdiction, which is not a
genuine admiralty jurisdiction; it is colorable admiralty jurisdiction which judges are
enforcing because the American people are using colorable money.  Colorable admiralty
jurisdiction is known as "statutory" jurisdiction.  "Statutory" jurisdiction is not mentioned
anywhere in the Constitution and is therefore an unlawful and nonexistent venue.

Once Federal Reserve Notes became unredeemable (Read  In A State of Emergency)
the government needed a system of law which was completely colorable from start to
finish.  This system of law was codified as the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and has
been adopted by every corporate State.  The UCC is colorable law and is currently used
in all official courts.  It used to be called the Law Merchant or the Law of Redeemable
Instruments because it dealt with paper that was redeemable in exchange for items of

It is important for you to understand that all courts and all governments throughout the
United States-including the 50 corporate (not Union) States-must follow and obey the
Uniform Commercial Code.  However, inorder for the UCC to be implemented there had to
be a provision requiring it to be in harmony with the common law.  This requirement may
be found at UCC Section 1-103 which, when invoked along with UCC Section1-207,
represents a powerful method of protecting your natural rights from encroachment by the

"The (Uniform Commercial) Code is "complementary" to the common law which remains in
force except where displaced by the Code."

North Carolina National Bank v McCarley & Co.

34 NC App 689, 239 SE2d 583, 23 UCCRS 455 (1997)

Uniform Commercial Code, Section 1-103:6

"A party who with explicit reservation of rights performs or promises performance or
assents to performance in a manner demanded or offered by the other party does not
thereby prejudice,' 'under protest' or the like are sufficient."

Uniform Commercial Code, Section 1-207

Regarding UCC 1-207, a more detailed explanation is in order.  Should you wish to
preserve your God-given rights from invasion by the government, you need to clearly
understand the meaning of this section of the Uniform Commercial Code.

Whenever you invoke UCC 1-207 by placing the words "without prejudice UCC 1-207" or
"under protest UCC 1-207" next to or directly above your signature on any government or
quasi-government document, you are declaring two things on the record.  First, you are
stating that your signature in no way indicates any waiver of your unalienable rights.  In
fact, you are informing the other party(ies) that at no time do you waive your rights,
whether such waiver is expressed or implied.

Second, you are stating that your signature cannot be used to compel you to perform
under terms of a contract, unless those terms were clearly and accurately explained to
you before you issued your signature.  It is crucial that you understand these meanings if
you are to use UCC 1-207, because if you are ever questioned by a judge or other
government officials to what this means, and you do not know the proper answer, your
usage will be disallowed.  This is why sovereignty must be an individual and personal
decision; each of you must make the time to learn the meaning of the relevant laws.  It
isn't particularly difficult, but you must do it if you wish to live free.

If you want to protect your rights from being violated by government and
quasi-government officials, one excellent tool is to always use UCC 1-207 when signing
any document which involves the government in your activities, whether directly or
indirectly.  These types of documents include, without limitation, IRS Forms, bank
signature cards, traffic or other legal citations, court documents of ay kind, drivers and
other license applications, library card applications, etc.  You should also use it when
endorsing the back of a check, because when you negotiate a bank draft you are
involving the Federal Reserve System in your private business.

We Have Been in a State of Emergency Since 1933

more to come

To find out more about Jurisdiction, Colorable Law, the Uniform Commercial Code, our
state of emergency, and your Nom de Guerre or war name please contact Freedom
Bound International and ask to purchase Brent-Emory..Johnsons' book "The Sovereign

Again I thank Brent for his relentless pursuit for the truth and to bring it to the attention of
the American people.

We Shall Not  Forget



The Legal System



Jury Says Wages Not Taxable

31 Questions About the IRS

Senators Attorney Claims 16th
Amendment Bogus

The Second Amendment

Liberal Gun Control Agenda

The United Nations

The Federal Reserve System

The Real Reason For The
Death of JFK

Elite Plot for Economic

The Authority of Law

Administrative Law

State of Emergency

Emergency War Powers Act

Executive Orders

The Shadow Government

Enemy Of The State

General Tommy Franks
Press Interview

My Rebuttal to the General

Admiral Moorers' Last Warning

The Silent Invasion


Partial Birth Abortions

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