|Rulings and Quotes
"There is no such thing as a power of inherent sovereignty in the government of the United States... In this country
sovereignty resides in the people, and Congress can exercise no power which they have not, by their Constitution,
entrusted to it: all else is withheld."
Supreme Court Justice Field / Julliard v. Greenman, 110 U.S. 421 (1884)
"We should not forget that our tradition is one of protest and revolt, and it is stultifying to celebrate the rebels of the
past.. while we silence the rebels of the present."
Henry Steele Commager / Historian / 1902-1998
"People of a state are entitled to all rights which formerly belonged to the king by his prerogative."
Lansing v. Smith, 21 D. 89
"When the People create a single, entire government, they grant at once all the rights of sovereignty. The powers
granted are indefinite and incapable of enumeration. Everything is granted that is not expressly reserved in the
Constitutional Charter, or necessarily retained as inherent in the people.
"But when a federal government is erected with only a portion of sovereign power, the rule of construction is directly
the reverse, and every power is reserved to the members that is not, either in express terms or by necessary
implication, taken away from them, and vested exclusively in the federal head. This rule has not only been
acknowledged by the most intelligent of friends of the Constitution, but it is plainly declared in the instrument itself."
Livingston v. Van Ingen, 9 Johns (N.Y.) 574
"...in our country the people are sovereign and the government cannot sever its relationship to the people by taking
away their citizenship."
Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44, 2 L.Ed.@d 603 (1958)
"The unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or state governments, but where I trust in
God it will ever remain, in the hands of THE PEOPLE"
"The said constitution shall never be constructed to authorize congress to prevent the people of the United States who
are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms"
"Arms discourage and keep the invader in awe. Horrid mischief would ensue were the law-abiding deprived the use of
"Resistance to sudden violence, for the preservation not only of my person, my limbs, and life, but of my property, is an
indisputable right of nature which I have never surrendered to the public by the compact of society, and which
perhaps, I could not surrender if I would."
"The defence of one's self, justly called the primary law of nature, is not, nor can it be abrogated by any regulation of
"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by
The Ninth Amendment
"The rights of conscience, of bearing arms, of changing the government, are declared to be inherent in THE PEOPLE"
"The militia when properly formed are THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES and include all men capable of bearing arms."
Richard Henry Lee
"Laws that forbid the carrying of arms disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crime.
"The constitution preserves the advantage of being armed which Americans possess over the people of almost every
"Guard with jealous attention the public liberty, suspect anyone who approaches that jewel
"And what country can preserve its liberties, if its rulers are not warned from time to time that this people preserve the
spirit of resistance? Let them take arms.... The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time, with the blood of
patriots and tyrants."
"If ever time should come, when vain and aspiring men shall possess the highest seats in Government, our country will
stand in need of its experienced patriots to prevent its ruin."
"THE PEOPLE are confirmed by the article in their right to keep and bear their PRIVATE arms."
"A free people ought to be armed"
"One loves to possess arms, though they hope never to have occasion for them"
St. George Tucker (1752-1828) who fought in the Revolutionary War, who served as a colonel in the Virgina Militia,
and who was a friend of Thomas Jefferson once wrote:
"The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed and this may be considered as the true palladium
of liberty .... The right of self defence is the first law of nature: in most governments it has been the study of rulers to
confine this right within the narrowest limits possible. Wherever standing armies are kept up, and the right of the
people to keep and bear arms is, UNDER ANY COLOR OR PRETEXT WHATSOEVER, prohibited, liberty, if not already
annihilated, is on the brink of destruction."
Here is a statement from current United States Attorney General John Ashcroft on the Second Amendment:
"Let me state unequivocally my view that the text and the original intent of the Second Amendment clearly protect the
right of individuals to keep and bear firearms."
Thank you Mr. Ashcroft for telling the American People the truth!